One of the key processes in living organisms is mass transport occurring from blood vessels to tissues for supplying tissues with oxygen, nutrients, drugs, immune cells, and - in the reverse direction - transport of waste products of cell metabolism to blood vessels. The mass exchange from blood vessels to tissue and vice versa occurs through blood vessel walls. This vital process has been investigated experimentally over centuries, and also in the last decades by the use of computational methods. Due to geometrical and functional complexity and heterogeneity of capillary systems, it is however not feasible to model in silico individual capillaries (including transport through the walls and coupling to tissue) within whole organ models. Hence, there is a need for simplified and robust computational models that address mass transport in capillary-tissue systems. We here introduce a smeared modeling concept for gradient-driven mass transport and formulate a new composite smeared finite element (CSFE). The transport from capillary system is first smeared to continuous mass sources within tissue, under the assumption of uniform concentration within capillaries. Here, the fundamental relation between capillary surface area and volumetric fraction is derived as the basis for modeling transport through capillary walls. Further, we formulate the CSFE which relies on the transformation of the one-dimensional (1D) constitutive relations (for transport within capillaries) into the continuum form expressed by Darcy's and diffusion tensors. The introduced CSFE is composed of two volumetric parts - capillary and tissue domains, and has four nodal degrees of freedom (DOF): pressure and concentration for each of the two domains. The domains are coupled by connectivity elements at each node. The fictitious connectivity elements take into account the surface area of capillary walls which belongs to each node, as well as the wall material properties (permeability and partitioning). The overall FE model contains geometrical and material characteristics of the entire capillary-tissue system, with physiologically measurable parameters assigned to each FE node within the model. The smeared concept is implemented into our implicit-iterative FE scheme and into FE package PAK. The first three examples illustrate accuracy of the CSFE element, while the liver and pancreas models demonstrate robustness of the introduced methodology and its applicability to real physiological conditions.
The reactor lay-out of a biological gas treatment system is generally relatively simple, but the process of biological gas treatment involves a series of complex physical, chemical, and biological processes. Many of these fundamental processes in biological gas treatment systems like mass transfer still require research (Popat and Deshusses 2010). As a result, biological gas treatment systems are often built and operated without knowledge of the rate-limiting steps in the system (often resulting in scale-up problems) and design and operations are mainly based on empirical experience.
Introduction to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell metabolism, and genetic engineering. Mathematical modeling of enzyme kinetics and its importance in reactor design. Large-scale fermentation, such as bioreactor design and scale-up, cellular and membrane transport processes, growth media development, sterilization procedures, and protein purification. Lecture/recitation/laboratory. This is a technical elective.Prerequisite: Chem 221, or permission of instructor.
The objective of this course is to introduce the engineering principles related to the interdisciplinary field of drug delivery. Mathematical models of steady- and non-steady state mass transport in biological systems will be developed to solve problems related to pharmacokinetic compartment modeling, molecular diffusion, and receptor binding kinetics. The design and application of current drug delivery systems, including controlled-release polymers, lipid-shelled particles, and cell-based strategies will be explored through the evaluation of peer-reviewed literature and experimental analysis. This is a technical elective.Prerequisite: Math 161 or permission of the instructor.
ABE 5815C: Food and Bioprocess Engineering Design Design and analysis of fermentation, thermal, freezing, evaporation, dehydration; and mechanical, chemical and phase separation processes as governed by principles of conservation of mass and energy, reaction kinetics and rheology of food and biological materials.
ABE 6254: Simulation of Agricultural Watershed SystemsCharacterization and simulation of agricultural watershed systems including land and channel phase hydrologic processes and pollutant transport processes. Investigation of the structure and capabilities of current agricultural watershed computer models.
ABE 6265: Vadose Zone Water and Solute Transport ModelingUnsaturated zone modeling of water flow and solute transport processes. Comparative analysis of alternative mechanistic modeling approaches of different complexity.
ABE 6649C: Advanced Biosystems ModelingThis course serves as an advanced graduate class for continued modeling of biological processes and systems. It is the second and required course of the Biological Modeling Certificate offered by ABE.
ABE 6933/4932: Applications of Life Cycle Assessment in Biological EngineeringThis is a special topics course that will explore the topic of life-cycle assessment (LCA) in relation to biological engineering design. The course will be project based with students working in teams to identify a current challenge within water-energy-food systems and develop an engineering solution to address this challenge. A key component of this course will be applying LCA as a tool for informing the design process and evaluating the environmental impacts of engineered products and processes. Through the course, students will be introduced to additional concepts including circular economy, mass and energy balances, and life-cycle costing. Students will examine these concepts through case studies and apply them in a team design project.
The book begins with discussions on bioheat transfer equations for blood flows and surrounding biological tissue, the concept of electroporation, hydrodynamic modeling of tissue-engineered material, and the resistance of microbial biofilms to common modalities of antibiotic treatments. It examines how biofilms influence porous media hydrodynamics, describes the modeling of flow changes in cerebral aneurysms, and highlights recent advances in Lagrangian particles methods. The text also covers passive mass transport processes in cellular membranes and their biophysical implications, the modeling and treatment of mass transport through skin, the use of porous media in marine microbiology, the transport of large biological molecules in deforming tissues, and applications of magnetic stabilized beds for protein purification and adsorption, antibody removal, and more. The final chapters present potential in situ characterization techniques for studying porous media and conductive membranes and explain the development of bioconvection patterns generated by populations of gravitactic microorganisms in porous media.
Using a common nomenclature throughout and with contributions from top experts, this cohesive book illustrates the role of porous media in addressing some of the most challenging issues in biomedical engineering and biotechnology. The book contains sophisticated porous media models that can be used to improve the accuracy of modeling a variety of biological processes.
CHEM E 330 Transport Processes I (5)Diffusive transport of momentum, heat, and mass; general aspects of fluid flow; the Navier-Stokes equations; one-dimensional flow with engineering applications. Prerequisite: CHEM E 310; and either MATH 136 or MATH 207. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: CHEM E 330
CHEM E 461 Electrochemical Engineering (3)Explores role of thermodynamics, charge transfer kinetics, and mass transfer on behavior of electrochemical systems. Includes cell thermodynamics, faradaic and non-faradaic rate processes, ionic transport, nucleation and growth theories. Applications to chemical sensors, batteries, corrosion, thin film deposition. In-class demonstrations to illustrate concepts.View course details in MyPlan: CHEM E 461
CHEM E 530 Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer I (4)Derivation of the differential equations for mass, energy, and momentum transport. Principles of fluid mechanics; creeping flow, turbulence, boundary-layer theory. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: CHEM E 530
Over the last 30 years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e., capillary sprout growth, has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made toward the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration. 59ce067264